Cyber Laws


With the advent of Computers as a basic tool of Communication, Information Processing, Information Storage, Physical Devices Control, etc., a whole new Cyber Society has come into existence. This Cyber society operates on a virtual world created by Technology and it is the “Cyber Space Engineering” that drives this world. In maintaining harmony and co-existence of people in this Cyber Space, there is a need for a legal regime which is what we recognize as “Cyber laws”.  Cyber Laws are the basic laws of a Society and hence have implications on every aspect of the Cyber Society such as Governance, Business, Crimes, Entertainment, Information Delivery, Education etc. 


•  Coming of the Internet.
•  Greatest cultural, economic, political and social transformation in the history of human

•  Complex legal issues arising leading to the development of cyber law.
•  Different approaches for controlling, regulating and facilitating electronic communication

    and commerce.


•  Laws Relating to Digital Contracts
•  Laws Relating to Digital Property
•  Laws Relating to Digital Rights
•  Law of Cyber Crimes


•  Aims to provide the legal infrastructure for e-commerce in India.
•  India 's codified Cyber law is the Information Technology Act, 2000 (Act 21 of 2000).
•  Based on the INCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce, 1996.
•  IT Act is divided into 13 chapters and has 94 sections.
•  Amendments to IPC, Indian Evidence Act, Bankers Book Evidence Act and RBI Act have

    been effected.

The Act provides for:

•  Legal Recognition of Electronic Documents
•  Legal recognition of Electronic commerce Transactions
•  Admissibility of Electronic data/evidence in a Court of Law
•  Legal Acceptance of digital signatures
•  Punishment for Cyber obscenity and crimes
•  Establishment of Cyber regulations advisory Committee and the Cyber Regulations

    Appellate Tribunal.
•  Facilitation of electronic filing maintenance of electronic records.


•  To provide legal recognition for transactions:-
•  Carried out by means of electronic data interchange, and
•  Other means of electronic communication, commonly referred to as "electronic commerce",

   involving the     use of alternatives to paper-based methods of communication and storage

   of information,
•  To facilitate electronic filing of documents with the Government agencies
•  To amend the Indian Penal Code, the Indian Evidence Act, 1872, the Banker's Book

    Evidence Act, 1891     and the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934
•  Aims to provide for the legal framework so that legal sanctity is accorded to all electronic

    records and     other activities carried out by electronic means.

According to the Indian IT Act, 2000 the various Cyber offences are:

•  Tampering with computer source documents
•  Hacking with computer system
•  Publishing of information which is obscene in electronic form
•  Not to obey the direction of Controller
•  Directions of Controller to a subscriber extend facilities to decrypt information
•  Intrusion into protected system
•  Penal action for misrepresentation
•  Breach of confidentiality and privacy
•  Publishing digital signature certificate false in certain particular etc.
•  Act to apply for offence or contravention committed outside India and
•  Confiscation


Legality of Email:

•  E-mail will now be a valid and legal form of communication in our country.
•  Can be duly produced and proved in a court of law.

India's strategy for prevention of Computer Crimes 

•  Stipulating the offences which would constitute Computer crimes.
•  Identification of domestic criminal law for possible amendments to meet the requirements

    of prevention of computer     related crimes.
•  Improving international collaborations.
•  Effective prosecution under the existing criminal law.
•  Adaptation and classification of OECD (Organization of Economic Cooperation and

    Development) guidelines.
•  Development of Security guidelines and manuals for implementation of such guidelines.

Crimes Prevention under the IT Act.  

•  Chapter IX provides for Penalties and Adjudication.
•  Chapter XI provides for Offences.

The object of IT Act is to protect:

•  All electronic systems for intrusion;
•  Privacy of certain messages;
•  protect the computer system from unauthorized access

The object of IT Act is to ensure:

•  Compliance to the provisions of the Act;
•  Non-publishing of obscene information.
•  Assistance in the decrypting information in the interest of state and crime control.

The Act also aims at preventing misrepresentation, falsity and fraud and provides for penalty.

Information Technology Act & Indian Penal Code

•  All cyber crimes do not come under the IT Act.
•  Many cyber crimes come under the Indian Penal Code.

Sending threatening messages by email  


  Section 506 IPC

Sending defamatory messages by email  


  Section 499 IPC

Forgery of electronic records  


  Section 465 IPC

Bogus websites, cyber frauds  


  Section 420 IPC

Email spoofing  


  Section 465, 419 IPC



  Section 383 IPC

Online sale of narcotics  


  NDPS Act

Online sale of weapons  


  Arms Act



  Section 66 IT Act



  Section 67 IT Act

Email bombing  


  Section 66 IT Act

Denial of Service attacks  


  Section 43 IT Act

Virus attacks  


  Section 43, 66 IT Act

Salami attacks  


  Section 66 IT Act

Logic bombs  


  Section 43, 66 IT Act

I.T. ACT 2000 - Overall Perspectives

The IT Act is a first step taken by the Government of India towards promoting the growth of e-commerce.
It is a first historical step.